A Century of Change: The Evolution of Islam in Europe 

International Fraternity Day

The United Nations General Assembly adopts the International Day of Human Fraternity, aimed at promoting interfaith and intercultural dialogue and understanding.

Murder of French Teacher

The murder of a French teacher by a Muslim extremist prompts renewed debates about freedom of speech, secularism, and the rights of Muslims in Europe.

COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic leads to significant disruptions to daily life and exacerbates existing economic and social inequalities, including those affecting Muslim communities in Europe.

Wave of Terrorist Attacks

A wave of terrorist attacks in Europe, including in Manchester, Barcelona, and London, lead to increased security measures and calls for greater cooperation between European countries in addressing terrorism and extremism.

Brexit Vote

The United Kingdom votes to leave the European Union, leading to concerns about the impact of Brexit on the rights and freedoms of Muslims and other minority groups in the country.

European Migrant Crisis

The European migrant crisis, fueled in part by the Syrian civil war, leads to a significant influx of refugees and migrants, including many Muslims, to Europe, sparking political and social tensions and debates about immigration and integration.

Rise of ISIS

The Islamic State (IS) declares a caliphate in parts of Iraq and Syria, leading to increased concerns about terrorism and radicalization in Europe and the implementation of stricter security measures.

Arab Spring

The Arab Spring leads to widespread protests and political upheaval in many Muslim-majority countries, resulting in significant changes to the political and social landscape of the region.

Euro-Med Partnership

The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership is established, aiming to strengthen ties between Europe and Muslim-majority countries in North Africa and the Middle East.

Treaty of Lisbon

The Treaty of Lisbon is signed, further emphasizing the European Union's commitment to promoting religious freedom, combating discrimination, and fostering intercultural dialogue.

London Bombings

The London bombings, also carried out by Islamist extremists, result in the deaths of 52 people and further heighten concerns about terrorism and radicalization in Europe.

Madrid Train Bombings

The Madrid train bombings, carried out by Islamist extremists, result in the deaths of 191 people and prompt increased security measures and anti-terrorism efforts in Europe.

Iraq War

The Iraq War begins, leading to increased instability and sectarian violence in the region and exacerbating tensions between Western countries and Muslim-majority countries.

Election of AKP

The election of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) in Turkey marks the beginning of a new era of Islamist politics in Turkey.

9/11 Attacks

The 9/11 attacks in the United States lead to increased scrutiny of Muslims in Western countries, including Europe, and the rise of Islamophobia.

Charter of Fundamental Rights

The adoption of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union includes protections for religious freedom and non-discrimination.

Kosovo War

The Kosovo War takes place, leading to the displacement of thousands of Muslim refugees and the intervention of NATO forces.

Maastricht Treaty

The Maastricht Treaty is signed, leading to the establishment of the European Union and new debates about European identity and integration.

Yugoslav Wars

The breakup of Yugoslavia leads to violent conflict and ethnic cleansing, with Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina as the primary victims.

Rushdie Affair

The fatwa against Salman Rushdie is issued, sparking global debates about freedom of expression and religious tolerance.

Soviet War in Afghanistan

The Soviet war in Afghanistan leads to the emergence of the Taliban and the spread of radical Islamism.

Islamic Revolution in Iran

The Islamic Revolution takes place in Iran, establishing an Islamic Republic and inspiring Islamic movements around the world.

Oil Crisis

The oil crisis leads to an influx of petrodollars to Muslim countries, promoting economic development and Islamic resurgence.

Six-Day War

The Six-Day War takes place between Israel and several Arab states, leading to the displacement of thousands of Palestinian Muslims.

First Purpose-Built Mosque

Establishment of the Islamic Centre of Geneva, the first purpose-built mosque in Europe.

Muslim Immigration to Europe

Large-scale immigration of Muslims from North Africa and Turkey to Western Europe begins.

Iranian Monarchy Restored

The Iranian monarchy is restored, leading to a period of political and social changes in Iran.

Mosque in Paris

Establishment of the first mosque in France.

Muslim immigration to Europe

Arrival of large numbers of Muslim immigrants, mainly from North Africa and Turkey, to Europe.

Partition of India and Pakistan

Division of the Indian subcontinent into Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan

Persecution of Muslims in Nazi Germany

Increasing persecution of Muslims in Germany under the National Socialist Party

Abolition of the Ottoman caliphate

The Ottoman caliphate is dissolved

Albania becomes a secular state

Albania declares its separation from the Ottoman Empire and transition to a secular government

World War I

Global conflict resulting in Ottoman Empire's collapse

First Balkan War

Dissolution of Ottoman Empire's holdings in the Balkans

Italian invasion of Libya

Italian occupation of a Muslim-majority region

Young Turk Revolution

Overthrow of the Ottoman Empire's monarchy

First mosque in Germany (Berlin)

Establishment of first mosque in Germany